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Lecture Notes

These files are in Adobe PDF format. Some of the images within the files are rather large so may take some time to draw on the screen. Please contact me if you have problems downloading, viewing or printing these notes.

  1. Introduction and pressure measurement. Some results from kinetic theory, the requirements for experiments in vacuum, pressure gauges for low, medium and high vacuum.

  2. Chambers and pumping hardware. General construction of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber. Pumps. Attainment of UHV.

  3. Ideal surfaces. Basic crystallography, notation for points, directions and planes (Miller indices). Example surfaces (BCC(100), FCC(111) etc), including stepped surfaces.

  4. Real surfaces. Relaxation, reconstruction and defects. Preparation of clean surfaces.

  5. Adsorption, order and coverage. Ways to define surface adlayer coverage. Chemisorption and physisorption. Reasons for ordered monolayer formation.

  6. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED), reciprocal lattices, Ewald spheres and dynamical LEED.

  7. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), and x-ray fine structure methods (extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS)).

  8. Scanning probe microscopies (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  9. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), including a discussion of the basic theory, initial and final state structure, loss mechanisms, instrumentation and quantitation.

  10. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), including a basic description of the Auger process, instrumentation, quantitation and some brief applications (including the scanning Auger microprobe).

  11. Vibrational Spectroscopy, including a basic description of both reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Some brief examples for each technique and a comparison of strengths/weaknesses are given.

  12. Incident Ion Techniques, including ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS). An introduction to the ion sputtering process and its application to surface cleaning, depth profiling and spectroscopy is given. Much of the material is devoted to a discussion of secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS) and static and dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS and DSIMS).

  13. Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), including a simple theoretical description of the desorption process (Polanyi-Wigner rate equation), the significance of the "desorption order" and some examples of the information gained from TPD measurements.

  14. Summary of the important concepts discussed in more detail in the lecture notes above. Includes a brief comparison of the techniques we have covered.

This page created January 11, 2001 by Simon J. Garrett.