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Displaying documents 681-700 of total 976 found.
681. Stereoisomers [1]
Ring Conformers Ring Conformations Although the customary line drawings of simple cycloalkanes are geometrical polygons, the actual shape of these compounds in most cases is very different. Cyclopropane is necessarily planar (flat), with the carbon...
682. Stereoisomers [1]
Chiral Configurations Designating the Configuration of Chiral Centers Although enantiomers may be identified by their characteristic specific rotations, the assignment of a unique configuration to each has not yet been discussed. We have referred to th...
683. Supplemental Topics [1]
Structural Equivalence and Non-equivalence of Groups Structural Classification of Atoms or Groups We noted earlier that not all methyl (or methylene or methyne) groups in a molecule are necessarily the same (structurally equivalent). Depending on the...
684. Mass Spectrometry [1]
Mass Spectrometry 1. The Mass Spectrometer In order to measure the characteristics of individual molecules, a mass spectrometer converts them to ions so that they can be moved about and manipulated by external electric and magnetic fields. The th...
685. Infrared Spectroscopy [1]
Infrared Spectroscopy 1. Introduction As noted in a previous chapter, the light our eyes see is but a small part of a broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. On the immediate high energy side of the visible spectrum lies the ultraviolet, and...
686. Carbohydrates [1]
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of organic compounds found in living organisms. They originate as products of photosynthesis , an endothermic reductive condensation of carbon dioxide requiring light energy and the pigment chlorop...
687. Lipids [1]
Lipids The lipids are a large and diverse group of naturally occurring organic compounds that are related by their solubility in nonpolar organic solvents (e.g. ether, chloroform, acetone ?benzene) and general insolubility in water. There is great struc...
688. Proteins [1]
Proteins, Peptides ?Amino Acids 1. Introduction Proteins , from the Greek proteios , meaning first, are a class of organic compounds which are present in and vital to every living cell. In the form of skin, hair, callus, cartilage, muscles, tendons and...
689. Nucleic Acids [1]
Nucleic Acids 1. Introduction The first isolation of what we now refer to as DNA was accomplished by Johann Friedrich Miescher circa 1870. He reported finding a weakly acidic substance of unknown function in the nuclei of human white blood cells, and...
690. Polymers [1]
Polymers 1. Introduction Prior to the early 1920's, chemists doubted the existence of molecules having molecular weights greater than a few thousand. This limiting view was challenged by Hermann Staudinger , a German chemist with experience in studying...
691. Chemical Reactivity [1]
Organometallic Compounds Main Group Organometallic Compounds Organic compounds incorporating carbon-metal bonds are called organometallic compounds. Such compounds have been known and studied for nearly 200 years, and their unique properties have been...
692. Photochemistry [1]
Photochemistry Photochemistry The study of chemical reactions, isomerizations and physical behavior that may occur under the influence of visible and/or ultraviolet light is called Photochemistry . Two fundamental principles are the foundation for unde...
693. Rearrangement [1]
Rearrangements Induced by Bases or Electron Rich Sites Base Catalyzed Rearrangements Many common rearrangements are induced by the formation of electron deficient sites which attract neighboring non-bonding or bonding electron pairs. These cationic rea...
694. Rearrangement [1]
Rearrangements Induced by Cationic or Electron Deficient Sites Cationic Rearrangements In the first half of the nineteenth century it was generally believed that reactions of organic compounds proceeded with minimal structural change. This tenet simpli...
695. Synthesis [1]
Synthesis An Introduction to Synthesis The study of organic chemistry exposes a student to a wide range of interrelated reactions. Alkenes, for example, may be converted to structurally similar alkanes, alcohols, alkyl halides, epoxides, glycols and ...
696. Synthesis [1]
Synthesis Principles of Organic Synthesis Modern Synthesis A multi-step synthesis of any organic compound requires the chemist to accomplish three related tasks: 1. Constructing the carbon framework or skeleton of the desired molecule....
697. Assymetric Induction [1]
Stereoselective Synthesis Stereoselectivity refers to the preferential formation in a chemical reaction of one product stereoisomer (enantiomer or diastereomer) over another, as a result of inherent reaction specificity, or the influence of chiral feat...
698. organic problems [1]
Organic Chemistry Practice Problems The problem sets provided here are similar to those found on various kinds of standardized exams, such as GRE, ACS ?MCAT. The questions are roughly organized by subject, and most sets have over 50 multiple choice prob...
699. Alkane Reactivity [1]
Reactions of Alkanes Alkane Reactions The alkanes and cycloalkanes, with the exception of cyclopropane, are probably the least chemically reactive class of organic compounds. Despite their relative inertness, alkanes undergo several important reactions...
700. Alkene Reactivity [1]
Reactions of Alkenes Addition Reactions of Alkenes The most common chemical transformation of a carbon-carbon double bond is the addition reaction . A large number of reagents, both inorganic and organic, have been found to add to this functional group...

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